Here some simple tips to help with manipulating text, the simplest of things can be the most valuable. 🙂
First, if you only want to pull one character from a string, it’s a lot easier to use the following:
$string = 'puppy';
echo $string; // p
echo $string; // u
echo $string; // p ...and so on
And here’s the basic concept behind the substr() function:
substr($string, start # [, length #])
– length is in brackets because it’s optional
Now let’s use this function to get a better idea of what it does.
$string = 'categories';
echo substr($string, 0); // 'categories' because we asked to start at the first character (which is 0 from the first example above) and goes right until end of string
echo substr($string, 3); // 'egories' because started at the third character in the string and went to the end
echo substr($string, -1); // 's' this is different from above because it starts at the end and goes left that number of characters
echo substr($string, -3); // 'ies'
echo substr($string,0,-1); // 'categorie' strips last letter off
echo substr($string,3,4); // 'egor' - starts at the fourth character (remember 0 is the first) and shows 4 characters total (length)
echo substr($string,1,3); // 'ate' - starts at the second character and shows 3 characters total (length)
echo substr($string,1,-2); // 'ategori' because we started at the second character and also stripped off the last two with the "-2"
echo substr($string,-3,-2); // 'i' since we're starting from the third character from the left and then are stripping off two characters from that with the "-2"
I sometimes use this if I only want to display a preview description rather than showing the whole large description.
$text = 'Great for home, school or travel. Wonderful gift item!';
echo substr($text,0,25).'...'; // displays "Great for home, school or..."